02 Apr The traces of the sculpture are lost in the mists of time
The traces of the sculpture are lost in the mists of time, and its history is linked to the matter that depends on the place and time in which it was operated.Bronze, will be added, the materials that have been used the most are stone and wood, although in some places such as Africa, Greece, China and Rome.
The use of the two materials will be very similar to France, while the Mediterranean areas, where it was easy to find sandstones, porphyry, marble and granite, favored the stone material. The earliest examples of craftsmanship can be seen in the silica stone carved as furniture, it is certain that the evolution of the technique of sculpture has been very slow and many procedures were extremely tiring. For example, for polishing, finishing and polishing, sand was rubbed with force on the edges of the product.
Later copper and bronze tools were invented and later iron. Only then could the stone be better worked. This happened about 6,000 years ago at the dawn of the Egyptian and Babylonian civilization. In today’s Europe, the Greeks were the guardians of this and the Romans and Italians. It was therefore in the Mediterranean that the concept of carving of the stone was developed as the maximum aspiration of sculpture. Later this concept was transmitted throughout Europe until it is still valid today.
The profession of sculptor required a long apprenticeship it will be for a long time from its manual skills and mechanicality so much that it is not considered an art until the advent of Michelangelo. When he was still a young man, Michelangelo told his father that he wanted to be a sculptor, he was displeased and replied firmly that he would not allow his son to become a stonemason. Fortunately, thanks to the intercession of Lorenzo the Magnificent, the story will be different. This anecdote, however, makes us understand the difference between an architect, a mason or a sculptor. The term sculptor in the sense of an artistup to the Middle Ages the Latin term artifex and the term operarius (which means worker), were used indiscriminately.
The facts will change profoundly with the advent of the Renaissance , Considered the dawn of the modern era, the center of this change was Florencewithin which there was already a small circle of artists who experienced the awakening of the arts. Leon Battista Alberti, was the first to guess that the technical skills of the artist, had to support a theoretical foundation; only in this way would the visual arts be definitively admitted to the circle of liberal arts, and only in this way would the artists achieve the same rank as the literati, poets and scholars of geometry. In this regard, there are numerous treaties written by both Alberti and Leonardo who teach scientific methods of measuring a human model and consequent its transfer into matter. These methods will come very close to the principle of operation of modern pantograph machines, which, already at the time, gave rise to the doubt that they were not coming back,
The new figure of a scientist artist, contributed to the flourishing birth of ever larger shops ready to face very ambitious works. Gian Lorenzo Bernini born in 1598 as well as inaugurating the new type of shop was a sculptor who will bring many innovations often in direct contrast with the Michelangelesque conception. For example, he refused to limit the block in the realization of the work, thus introducing the use of several pieces of marble in the same sculpture (San Longino). Still he managed to make the marble moldy as if it were wax so as to completely cancel its character, in fact in his work there is no trace of that antiquated relationship of veneration of the characteristic material instead of Michelangelo. He designed his sculptures in such a way that they had a privileged point of view from which they entered into an active part of that climax of the vital gesture (David). In many of his projects, Bernini will make use of highly skilled collaborators and his intervention will be limited to preparatory sketches and to the creation of small sketches, nevertheless the Berninian character will nevertheless emerge strong. Thus the figure of the artist-entrepreneur is born, which will deal far more with the preparatory phases than with the actual realization of sculpture. nevertheless, the Berninian character will still emerge strong. Thus the figure of the artist-entrepreneur is born, which will deal far more with the preparatory phases than with the actual realization of sculpture. nevertheless, the Berninian character will still emerge strong. Thus the figure of the artist-entrepreneur is born, which will deal far more with the preparatory phases than with the actual realization of sculpture.
On this new type of artist the work of Canova will be inserted , born in Possagno in 1757. Already in 1774 he was the head of His Own studio in Venice where he had several employees to evidence That the great tasks were entrusted to him. The sculptor was only involved in the realization of the wax sketches that was subsequently realized in full size, in clay; the marble transfer was entrusted to qualified assistants. It will intervene again, to give the master’s touch when the performance will be in an advanced state. As we already know all this was unthinkable for Michelangelo who despite the bulk of his works, still preferred to end them in a state of total solitude.
Continuing in this brief summary of the history of sculpture we reach the beginning of the 800 That, almost until its second half, will remain quite sterile , caratterizzata above all by commemorative monuments scattered Throughout the European cities. However with the birth of August Rodin (1840-1917), direct heir to Michelangelo, this century too will be the witness profound artistic innovations. Rodin was a sculptor before sculptor, but he was not used to be a revolutionary of art. In his study, the models did not pose in the classical way, but wandered naked until the master would have grasped the vital attitude of the model that would characterize the work.The result was exceptional: the concept of a privileged point of view fell ; the observer, once static, was forced to move around the sculpture because it radiated outward from all directions (The kiss). With his studies Rodin will influence all the sculptors of the twentieth century, among the greatest remember Costantin Brancusi and Henry Moore. The former had a mixed relationship with Rodin, but later he said that his work would have been impossible without Rodin. It was in fact the discovery that the “part” could represent the “everything”, a concept widely used by Brancusi. Rodin carved deliberately partial figures that became the finished work, very different from Michelangelo’s “unfinished”, which instead offered us simply unfinished figures.
A couple with a sculptor while in the twentieth century. “The Cubical Truth” will be the only solution to the crisis of sculpture , however, in this case the new sculptors will follow that encompass all of nature, and not a single plane of it. The new forms were not just a response to an exasperated classical ideology, but it became a reinvention of Rodin’s doctrine.